学习资料库 柳琪 2020-09-01 10:10:41
The Longmen Grottos
The Longmen Grottos are on the Yihe River bank, some 12 kilometers from ancient Luoyang city, about 30 minutes' drive. It is one of the three most important Buddhist sculptures and carvings in China. The Longmen Grottos enjoy a good location where two mountains confront each other between which flows the Yihe River.
The grotto was first carved in North Wei Dynasty, over 1500 years ago and expanded through the succeeding East and West Wei Dynasties, North Qi Dynasty, North Zhou Dynasty, Sui and Tang Dynasties and was finally completed in North Song Dynasty. Over 500 years' renovation and expansion have created the prestigious world cultural site. The most significant chiseling activities happened in the Tang and North Wei Dynasties, which lasted over 150 years.
Spanning a length of around 1 kilometer on the hillside along the Yihe River, the niches resemble dozens of honeycombs dotting the area. There are about 2.100 grottoes and niches, over 40 crematory urns, 3,600 inscribed stone tablets and over 100,000 Buddhist images and statues. The largest one is 17 meters high while the smallest is a tiny as 2 cm. One third of the complex are works of the North Wei Dynasty. These masterpieces are the Binyang Cave, and Lianhua( Lotus Cave). The impressive Qianxi Temple, Fengxian Temple, Wanfo Cave( Ten Thousand Buddhist Cave) are the highlights of the Tang Dynast's carvings. The Longmen Grottos are of great value in world sculpture history and it has been listed in the World Cultural Heritage Site by the UNESCO. To protect such a valuable heritage site, the Chinese government as well as some influential world cultural organizations are trying hard to share this site with the whole word. A large-scaled renovation was undertaken in 2003 to keep the grottos in good condition.
welcome to the" land of fish and rice" - - suzhou.suzhou ,one of the chinese'"cities of gardens"tops all others in both number and artistry of gardens.starting from pijiang garden of the eastern jin dynasty,suzhou's art of gardening has undergone a history of1500 years.the concept of suzhou classical gardens has gone beyond the city the regions of the yangtze.
the four classical gardens of suzhou are the surging waves pavilion.the lion grove garden garden .the humble administrator'garden.the lingering garden.in a nutshell ,represent the different architectural styles of song.yuan.ming.qing dynasties.
my friends, now we are in the lingering garden. it is located in liuyuan road, suzhou city. it was built by xutaishi in ming dynasty. at that time it was named eastern garden.
there are three treasures in the lingering garden. the first treasure are stones.the stone in front of us is the most distinguishing stone "guangyun peak". with a weight of 5 tons and a height of 6.5 meters, it is one of the four wonderful stones in the regions of the yangtze.
the calligrapher and painter mifu in song dynasty sum up the features of lake tai stones as the following: slender ,wrinkling , leaking , penetrating. just take the "guangyun peak" as an example and you will have some idea about the features of the stones. in addition, it is endowed with the personal characters of faithfulness because of its nature of stiffness and unchangeable outlook. thus it has been worshipped by people since old time.
the second treasure is "five peak fairy hall" "five peaks fairy hall" gets the reputation of "the first hall in the regions of yangtze" . the name comes from the lines of the great poet libai. the four chinese characters on the plaque were written by wuda---the famous calligrapher. nanmu hall used to be the place for important banquets and ceremonies, such as birthday parties, weddings , funerals .
the hall is divided into two sections__the south section and the north section. the south section host male guests, while the south section host female guests.
the hall is elegantly designed with oversized windows on east and west sides . through the windows, the outside sceneries of the two courtyards can be extended as parts of the hall, thus to ensure enough lights into the building.
five peaks fairy hall was built out of luxury materials. beams and pillars are all nanmu, which is a kind of timber only produced in china. that is also the reason why "five peaks fairy hall" is also commonly called "nanmu hall".
the "fossil fish" we are enjoying is the third treasure of lingering garden. it is a natural marble picture. in the middle of the picture are the clutters of mountains which are partly hidden and partly visible; below are flowing streams,above are floating clouds; right on the middle top is a round white spot like a sun or a moon.it is a picture drawn by the nature. the marble stone has a diameter of 1 meter or so and a thickness of 15 mms . it was produced in diancang mountain, yunnan province. it is a wonder how such big a stone was delivered in a good condition from yunnan which is over one thousand mile away from suzhou.
china is most famous for its elegant classical gardens.
among these, the lingering garden is one representative. if you would like to know more about chinese culture, we welcome you to visit suzhou again.
Welcome to Yunnan, Welcome to Tengchong! It’s my honor to be your guide. Today we are going to visit the volcanoes and hot springs in Tengchong, which are the most famous here.
As we will get there in a few minutes, first allow me to give you a brief intoduction of Tengchong. Tengchong is located in the southwest of China and occupies an area of 5800 square kilometers. There are 23 nationalities here, such as 汉、傣、回、白 nationalities and so on. When we mentioned Tengchong, three things will come into mind, which are: the volcanoes and hot springs having 10,000 years, the border city having 1,000 years and the fair of jade having 100 years.
Later we will get to the volcanoes and the hot spring, so now I can tell you something about the latter two ones. They all can reflect the long history Tengchong has. Tengchong is a city on boarder. And because of its location, it has been an important place for military reasons. And that’s a part of its history. It’s also regarded as the county of manners, and it is the hometown of so many famous people. And another part of its history is that Tengchong is one trade center of jade between China and Burma. So don’t forget to get a round to the jade fair. I think you will feel interested.
OK, everyone, here is the Library of the Volcanoes. Now let’s have a look at .The volcanoes in Tengchong are famous in China, and it’s one of the four groups of volcanoes in China. The strong extravasations are the cause of the landform of Tengchong. There is a lieder in Tengchong saying that:” Such a place Tengchong, nine in ten mountains have no peaks.” It’s very vivid, from that you can see so many volcanoes are in Tengchong. There are 97 volcanoes in Tengchong now with high value of tourism and scientific research.
hello! toured the dali old city, initially has feltthis humanities landscape profoundness; now we watch the cangshanerhai, understands the dali's america of scenery.
first, we ride the yacht to go to the erhai park. the erhai park othername group mountain park, is l ocated the hsiakuan city northeast 2kilometers place groups mountains. north it near ocean waves wan qingerhai, west and cangshan southend setting sun peak relative. whennanzhao country, here is king's deer park. in 1976 here newly wardedoff for the park, occupiesdi 1,600 chinese acres. on the mountain has thezoo and the plant nursery flower-bed, broadly plants the dali areaeach kind of precious flower different plant, is very good rests placeof the tour.
now the pleasure boat to the erhai park near the sea causeway, we cameashore to the ship, this is under the group foot of a hill binhai tourarea along 270 multistage stone steps ascendslevel on, we arrive the summit.everybody looked that, this curls upwardsangle upturned eave pavilion is looks thesea building, the eave hangs from above the plaque, submits a writtenstatement: jade er silver dark green ", the black bottom goldcharacter, vigorous is classically elegant, it is the chinese inadmiration of somebody's fame painter wu zuoren's writing skill. looksthe sea building is understands "the jade er silver dark green"happiest extent, leans against a railing looks out into the distance:east side erhai vast, boundless, west cangshan is continuous,luxuriant is gray.
fellow friends, let us go on board once more, roams through to erhaiin. but i first must to everybody introduction be actually amcangshan. formerly, we in the dali city, under on the dark green footof a hill road, have not been able to look at carefully the cangshangrand appearance well. just like the ancient said "does not know thetruth about the matter, only reason body in this mountain"; looks thesea building in the erhai park, the angle of view inclines, also onlycan see the cangshan terminal. now, unceasingly leads the way alongwith the pleasure boat, in our eye cangshan is not clearer? somepeople said that, a hengduan pulse condition great arm, the tibetplateau extended west yunnan from "the roof of the world" to thesouth, cangshan was in this world famous sierra a cloud range branch.
cangshan, also names the diancang, is green because of its mountaincolor, the mountain apex acquires fame in vain. cangshan altogetherhas 19 peaks. this 19 peaks from the north to the south order are: thecloud makes, green, five, the lotus flower, the white clouds, thecrane cloud, three positive, the blue peak, the snowman, should behappy, the goddess of mercy, center and, longquan, the jade bureau,malone, the saint should, buddha go against, ma er, the setting sun.in 19 peaks, the malone peak is highest, elevation 4,122 meters. thecangshan 19 peaks, two peaks clamp a brook, altogether 18 brooks; eastthe mountain stream flows, pours into erhai, 18 brooks from north tosouth, the base arrangement is: south the rosy cloud moves, wan hua,the positive brook, the awn wells up, the brocade brook, the spiritspring, the white stone, the double mandarin duck, hides the immortal,mei xi, the peach brook, center the brook, the emerald, longxi, clearblue, remnant, pavilion mouth, is not positive.
the cangshan scenery by the snow, the cloud, springstone is famous. i firstintroduce cangshan to everybody the snow. after the summer needlesscangshan snow, is dali "the love affair" four given names scenery. thesnow white cangshan snow, all previous dynasties article literatiapproves the refined language quite a lot, the folklore also many. thethe ming dynasty writer li yuanyang once praised: "date li cangshansnow, precioustai 19 peaks".
cangshan's cloud is the famous biography is far and wide. the cloudgathers the cloud to disperse, sometimes the pale like light smoke,sometimes is thick like splashes ink. in fluctuates varied center, what is most mysterious is "looks the husband cloud" and "thejade belt cloud". so-called "looks the husband cloud" is referswhenever the winter spring the season, the cangshan jade bureau peakregular meeting appears a lonely cloud, suddenly remembers suddenlyfalls, about flutters, if hoped if attends to. unusual occupying to anits appearance, the diancang then suddenly gets up the storm, blows toerhai. so-called "jade belt cloud", is refers whenever at the end ofthe summer fallinitially, after rainfirst clear, between the cangshan 19 peakshalfways up the mountainside often can appear white clouds, the cloudsgatherscollects, slowly pulls open, if the pure white jade belt horizontallyties the green mountainside. is continuous dozens of miles,unexpectedly the date does not dissipate. marvelous is, "the jade beltcloud" meets the omen agriculture abundant harvest: it appears thenumber of times to be many, same year on good crop weather. local painationality has the farmer's proverb: "cangshan is the jade belt, thehungry dog eats the rice".
cangshan's spring very is also famous. in 19 peaks the elevation hasmany mountains moraine lake in 3,800 meter above peak, this is thequaternary period glacier stays behind. also has that 18 brooks themountain stream, flies the waterfall to fold the spring, the fourseasons rushes down, in under clear sweet water seepage nourishing,cangshan fills the vitality. the moraine lakeside, the densely coveredvirgin forest and many precious forests, the strange flowers andplants, specially should tell everybody are, cangshan's flowers andplants already fine reputation far broadcasts, moreover it also causescangshan to be famous far and wide. american professor luo lancasteronce said that, "has 1000000 in us to know the chinese yunnan the dalicangshan, because they all plant have many beautiful dali cangshan theindian azalea."
cangshan's stone, renowned at home and abroad. guo moruo has "chantsmarble" the poem: "three towers are high ancient, along thinksloyalview year. the cangshan rhyme love affair, the wonderful stone spitsthe mist. outside the heart, coolly lives elbowarmpit. the day meritmanpower generation, the overseas compete the treasure biography."
cangshan has bred the marble, the marble is cangshan's soul. this kindof magnificent wonderful stone, world many places all have, the alonedali's most wonderful america, also opens the people early, therefore,world every this wonderful stone is called "the marble", "dali" alsoraises the world because of shi erming.
fellow friends, our pleasure boat vanguard, now should introduce thisocean waves wan qing to everybody erhai itself.
erhai, ancient name kunming pond, er river, ye yu ze and so on;because it resembles the person ear, therefore erhai. its north andsouth long 42 kilometers, the thing extends 3-9 kilometer, the lakewaterfront long 117 kilometers, the area more than 250 squarekilometers; the hydraulic mean depth 10.5 meters, the deepest 21.5meters, the water-holding capacity 2.88 billion cubic meters, the areaand the water-holding capacity arrange in order the yunnan lakesecond, occupies seventh in the national fresh water lake.
south erhai has makes up the river and so on to pour into, westnatriumthe cangshan 18 mountain streams, east collect the polo river, dig thecolor river, the south side west er river are the only estuaries,after ripples red circles into lanchan river. erhai is the tectoniclake, the lake shore thing are many cliffwall, north southwest three arethe sandbars.
everybody looked, erhai water depth limpid, if the non- flaw beautifuljade, is beautiful incomparably, it is welcome each position by thebroad mind to come from the distant place guest. erhai is the chinafamous high land moor, as early as it has carried the annals in thehan dynasty.
"er sea month" is dali one of four given names scenery. if goes boatingerhai in the lunar calendar ten in may bright nights, its monthespecially bright, especially circle, its scenery elated: in thewater, the month circle like wheel, floats the light to swing thegold; the sky, the jade mirror high hangs, the clear splendor isshining, the bath leaves from erhai. looks that, looks, the water andsky shines, you unexpectedly cannot distinguish clearly are the daymonth fall the sea, or seamonth ascends to heaven. is er seamonth so whybright? the scientific conclusion is: first, erhai water qualityspecially pure, the transparency is quite high, its reflection greatlystrengthened; second, erhai sea level dust less, air fresh, causes thewater and sky to serve as contrast, the moonlight is brighter. inaddition, er seamonth is famous, but also lies in the pure white non-flaw the cangshan snow to produce an inverted image in erhai, seamonthenhances one another's beauty with as pure as driven snow er, aconstitution silver dark green jade er's big marvelous sight.
with the cangshan snow, the er seamonth connected dali four given namesscenery also have guan hua, the hsiakuan wind. between erhai andcangshan's dam, is a long shape silting alluviation plain. whennanzhao country, nearby two respectively builds a xiaocheng in thisstrip north and south, holds the important location, defends the kingsall safety. north name long shouguan, also called closes; southernregion name dragon's tail pass, at once hsiakuan. on so-called closesthe flower, is refers closes "ten mile fragrant wonderful tree", thisflower originally shapings the street and shan sinei in on pass, itsflowered big like lotus, the year opens several hundred, the fragranceoverflows the four directions, the flower opens the season, the viewlike cloud. also therefore the tree ties the husk to be firm, may dofaces the bead, therefore the flower called "faces the pearl headornament". afterwards, this flower vanished. the first years, somepeople had it is said found it in the cangshan forest. west thehsiakuan wind refers to the er river valley to inject hsiakuan thewind, continues all year long, you takedong as is spring abundant, youas soon as enter hsiakuan to be allowed to feel the hsiakuan wind theexistence. it roars nearly every day, sweeps the street to put on thelane, holds up the bottom of garment uncovers the hat, caused hsiakuanobtained "the wind city" the nickname.
dali's love affair four given names scenery, has poem its string inthe same place, is advantageous for remembered, also quite has theappeal: the hsiakuan wind, on closes the flower, the hsiakuan windblows closes the flower; cangshan snow, er seamonth, er seamonth accordingto cangshan snow. speaks of here, asks each position to look our painationality girls embroider flowered baotou. you might not despise it,it have manifested the dali four given names scenery. please lookedthat, the breeze blows, nearby the ear snow white ear with the windfloatingly sprinkled, has appeared hsiakuan's wind; in baotou gorgeousflowers, has represented the flower which on closes; the peak this is white silkhead, looked by far likes cangshan the snow; the entirebaotou's shape same bright is moving on like erhai's in crescent moon.
Located at the 12 kilometers east of Luoyang city, the White Horse Temple is one of the oldest Buddhist temples in China and is renowned as the cradle of Chinese Buddhism. Although it is not the largest nor the most beautiful Buddhism monument in China, this temple with its large number of Buddhism items housed there, is well worth a trip.
An interesting legend related to the temple goes that a white horse carried the first Buddhist script from India here in ancient time hence the name White Horse Temple. History records that the site was original the place used by the second Han Emperor-Liu Zhuang as a summer resort and for study. In 68 AD, when Buddhism reached its heyday in India, two Indian monks brought Buddhist scriptures to Luoyang on the back of a white horse. The emperor, who was a devout Buddhism believer, built the temple to house the scriptures and named it White Horse Temple. It was said that there were once thousands of monks living in the temple. It was even used as a refugee sanctuary during the social turmoil of Wang Mang in the Eastern Han Dynasty.
The two monks who brought scriptures from India were buried here. Many monks from outside China have visited the monk and many of them have spent the rest of their time in that temple. The famous Tang Dynasty monk-Xuanzang started his 17 years long pilgrimage trip to Indian from the temple. After returning, Xuanzhang became the abbot of the White Horse Temple, where he disseminated the scriptures of Buddhism for the rest of his life.